Nuclear Chemistry


Use your notes and your textbook to answer the following questions.

  1. What is radioactivity?
  2. What particles are emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive isotope?
  3. How can you tell the three different types of radiation?Be specific and give several ways.
  4. What does the term transmutation mean?
  5. What is the difference between artificial and natural transmutation?
  6. What is the source of most of the radiation we are exposed to?
  7. Why do people who live at high altitudes receive more radiation that those who live at sea-level?
  8. What is the biological impact of radiation?
  9. When are alpha and beta particles most dangerous?
  10. Why are gamma rays usually considered more dangerous?
  11. How are radioactive isotopes used in scientific and medical research?
  12. What is a nucleon?
  13. What is an isotope?Give an example.
  14. How many protons and neutrons are present in Hydrogen-3, Potassium-42 and Iron-53?
  15. Write the equation for the beta decay of Krypton-85.
  16. Write the equation for the alpha decay of Francium-220.
  17. Define the term half-life.
  18. What instrument is used to measure half-life?
  19. Gold-198 has a half-life of 2.69 days.If a 200g sample was left for 10.76 days, how many grams of Gold-198 would be left?
  20. What elements were produced via artificial transmutation?Where are these elements on the periodic table?Describe these elements.
  21. Write the nuclear equation of the production of Carbon-14.
  22. Where does the neutron in the above equation come from?
  23. What is Carbon-14 used for?
  24. What is true of the amount of Carbon-14 in an organism after it dies? Explain.
  25. Why canít carbon dating be used to determine the age of rocks?
  26. What is used to determine the age of rock formation?Why?
  27. What is nuclear fission?
  28. What is a chain reaction?Use a diagram to help explain it.
  29. How is nuclear fission useful?
  30. What do the control rods in a nuclear reactor do?Why are they usually hanging over the reactor core?
  31. What are the dangers of nuclear reactors?
  32. What are the benefits of nuclear energy in comparison to energy generated from fossil fuels?
  33. What are fossil fuels?What environmental problem do to they cause?
  34. What is nuclear fusion?Where is it happening right at this very moment?
  35. What elements are involved in fusion on the surface of the sun?
  36. Does fusion produce more or less energy per reaction than fission?
  37. Why donít we have fusion reactors?
  38. Would there be hazardous wastes produced by fusion reactors?